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Robert Cowan, Stanford University, US

Actually, there’s shockingly little research currently on preventive treatments, in terms of adherence. It’s an area that hasn’t really be explored generally and even less so with respect to migraine. So currently, we have several preventive options. They are mainly oral medications: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and blood pressure medicines, antiepileptic medications and antidepressants and then of course we have onabotulinum toxin A for chronic migraine, which is injectable. So the subject of adherence is very important. When we first talk to a patient about the general concept of prevention we make sure that they understand the difference between prevention and acute treatmen